Health/Food Posts Tagged as 'DNA'
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Gene Therapy In Mice Builds Muscle, Reduces Fat
Exercise and physical therapy often are recommended to help people who have arthritis. Both can strengthen muscle — a benefit that also can reduce joint pain. But building muscle mass and strength can take many months and be difficult in the face of joint pain from osteoarthritis, particularly for older people who are overweight. A new study in mice at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, however, suggests gene therapy one day may help those patients.
The research shows that gene therapy helped build significant muscle mass quickly and reduced the severity of osteoarthritis in the mice, even though they didn’t exercise more. The therapy also staved off obesity, even when the mice ate an extremely high-fat diet.
Parental diet affects sperm and health of future offspring
When parents eat low-protein or high-fat diets it can lead to metabolic disorders in their adult offspring. Now, an international team led by researchers at the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research (CPR) have identified a key player and the molecular events underlying this phenomenon in mice.
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease is a school of thought that focuses on how prenatal factors such as stress and diet impact the development of diseases when children reach adulthood. Experimental evidence indicates that environmental factors that affect parents do play a role in reprogramming the health of their offspring throughout their lifespan. In particular, parental low-protein diets are known to be related to metabolic disorders in their children, such as diabetes.
Scientists edited genes inside of a live patient for the first time
For the first time ever, scientists edited the DNA inside a living human being. Doctors at Harvard edited the unruly cellular material of a live patient — who has a rare genetic disorder that causes blindness — inside the patient’s body, reported NPR. CRISPR, the technology used to edit the cellular sequence, isn’t brand new. But usually in order to use it for DNA editing, doctors first remove cells from a patient’s body, edit the genes inside them, and then put the edited genes back into the patient. Not anymore, though, apparently. CRISPR has now been used to modify DNA without first removing the cells, according to NPR.
In order to achieve this groundbreaking medical feat, doctors injected the patient’s eye with a combination of viruses and a set of CRISPR-created instructions for editing the gene, NPR reported. The viruses themselves are harmless. They are used as messengers to deliver the gene edits to the cells. The tool sent by the viruses is intended to cut out the defect that causes blindness in the patient. According to NPR, scientists hope that by cutting out the malfunctioning part of the cell, the patient’s body will respond by producing necessary proteins that prevent the death of cells in the retina and will also revitalize other cells, thus restoring vision.
SCIENCE SAYS BULLIES MIGHT BE SO MEAN BECAUSE THEY LITERALLY HAVE LESS OF A BRAIN
If you’ve ever been bullied, at some point you must have wondered what was going on in the bully’s head to make them do anything from giving atomic wedgies to spreading vicious rumors — how could you not?
"Our findings support the idea that, for the small proportion of individuals with life-course-persistent antisocial behavior, there may be differences in their brain structure that make it difficult for them to develop social skills that prevent them from engaging in antisocial behavior. These people could benefit from more support throughout their lives," Christina Carlisi, of University College London in the UK, said in a press release. She and her colleagues recently published a study in The Lancet.
MRI scans measured the total surface area and thickness of the cerebral cortex, which is the same gray matter you see in zombie movies. The cerebral cortex is the epicenter of higher thought processes that include motivation and decision making — and it might be something lacking here that leads to decisions which are less than stellar.
Bullied 9-year-old Quaden Bayles paid a price for outpouring of support
Teenager, 16, killed himself after being 'relentlessly' bullied for being autistic and gay after coming out aged 12, inquest hears
First human-monkey chimera raises concern among scientists
Efforts to create human-animal chimeras have rebooted an ethical debate after reports emerged that scientists have produced monkey embryos containing human cells.
A chimera is an organism whose cells come from two or more “individuals”, with recent work looking at combinations from different species. The word comes from a beast from Greek mythology which was said to be part lion, part goat and part snake.
The latest report, published in the Spanish newspaper El País, claims a team of researchers led by Prof Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte from the Salk Institute in the US have produced monkey-human chimeras. The research was conducted in China “to avoid legal issues”, according to the report.
Chimeras are seen as a potential way to address the lack of organs for transplantation, as well as problems of organ rejection. Scientists believe organs genetically matched to a particular human recipient could one day be grown inside animals. The approach is based on taking cells from an adult human and reprogramming them to become stem cells, which can give rise to any type of cell in the body. They are then introduced into the embryo of another species.